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-Installing DD-WRT on a router in most cases is almost as simple as installing a program onto your computer. However, doing it incorrectly can leave you with a modem that you have to throw away. Installing programs on a router, known as firmware, are achieved by a method called flashing. This article helps you determine which installation process is for you on your supported router, as well as giving router suggestions and information about flashing each one. +{{Languages|Installation}}
 +Installing DD-WRT on a router in most cases is almost as simple as installing a program onto your computer. However, doing it incorrectly can leave you with a router that you have to throw away. Installing programs on a router, known as firmware, are achieved by a method called flashing. This article helps you determine which installation process is for you on your supported router, as well as giving router suggestions and information about flashing each one.
=Choosing the Correct Firmware - '''Extremely Important'''= =Choosing the Correct Firmware - '''Extremely Important'''=
==Is Your Router Supported?== ==Is Your Router Supported?==
-For a list of devices working with DD-WRT, please see wiki page '''[[Supported Devices]]''', or '''[http://www.dd-wrt.com/dd-wrtv3/dd-wrt/hardware.html Hardware Database]''' (As of fall 2009 the Hardware Database is still in Beta).+Please check the router database first: http://www.dd-wrt.com/site/support/router-database.
-If your device is supported, you may find specific information in the [[Hardware-specific]] section for your modem. However, '''to avoid breaking your modem''', please finish reading this entire page on [[#Choosing the Correct Firmware]] first. You will then want to follow what is written for your particular device -[[User:Clock|clock]].+If your router is not listed there, check the wiki page.
 + 
 +For a list of devices working with DD-WRT, please see wiki page '''[[Supported Devices]]'''.
 + 
 +For a list of devices '''not''' working with DD-WRT please see wiki page '''[[Known incompatible devices]]'''.
 + 
 +If your device is supported, you may find specific information in the [[Hardware-specific]] page for your router. However, '''to avoid [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brick_%28electronics%29 Bricking] your router''', please finish reading this entire page first. You will then want to follow what is written for your particular device.
 + 
 +==Which router should I buy?==
 +For a list of recommended devices for installing h DD-WRT, please see '''[[Firmware FAQ#Which router should I buy?|Which router should I buy?]]'''
==Before You Download, Upgrade, or Flash== ==Before You Download, Upgrade, or Flash==
-Before you try to take any actions, including loading any firmware to your router....read the English Broadcom Forum Announcement entitled [http://www.dd-wrt.com/phpBB2/viewtopic.php?t=51486 Peacock Thread] It contains more information than just for those that having problems. Unfortunately, skipping this step leads many to brick (break) their routers.+Before you try to take any actions, including loading any firmware to your router....read the English Broadcom Forum Announcement entitled [https://secure.dd-wrt.com/phpBB2/viewtopic.php?t=51486 Peacock Thread] It contains more information than just for those who are having problems. '''BROADCOM ONLY INFO MOSTLY.''' Unfortunately, skipping this step leads many to brick (break) their routers.
-Start there... do some research... then ask questions. '''Don't just load V24-Final or SP1.''' (Read the English Broadcom Forum Announcements referenced above to find out why). The user-friendly dd-wrt download page [[http://www.dd-wrt.com/site/support/router-database]] will help you identify the correct "killer" and dd-wrt firmware versions (as applicable) for your device as needed. However, you must use the peacock thread and use the information in the [[Hardware-specific]] section to '''accurately''' identify your hardware and not create a problem that renders your modem useless. +Start there... do some research... then ask questions. '''Don't just load V24-Final or SP1.''' (Read the English Broadcom Forum Announcements referenced above to find out why). The user-friendly [http://www.dd-wrt.com/site/support/other-downloads?path=betas dd-wrt download page] will help you identify the correct "killer" and dd-wrt firmware versions (as applicable) for your device as needed. However, you must use the peacock thread and use the information in the [[Hardware-specific]] page to '''accurately''' identify your hardware and not create a problem that renders your router useless.
-After you have read THIS page, and gotten some background on the peacock page, the [[Hardware-specific]] section may be the most useful section for you in terms of identifying your modem, figuring out what files you need to download (including instructions), and figuring out the correct installation procedures.+After you have read THIS page, and gotten some background on the peacock page, the [[Hardware-specific]] page may be the most useful page for you in terms of identifying your router, figuring out what files you need to download (including instructions), and figuring out the correct installation procedures.
==Identifying Your DD-WRT Firmware== ==Identifying Your DD-WRT Firmware==
-* Use the '''brand-specific information in the [[Hardware-specific]]''' section to accurately identify which model you have. Start with the main brand heading (ie, "Linksys"). Use '''that''' information - instead of just going by what model you think you have - [[User:Clock|clock]]. +* Use the '''brand-specific information in the [[Hardware-specific]]''' page to accurately identify which model you have. Start with the main brand heading (ie, "Linksys"). Use '''that''' information - instead of just going by what model you think you have - [[User:Clock|clock]].
-* As the peacock thread mentions, using the incorrect file is one of the worst things you can do. Fortunately, dd-wrt has simplified this immensely with their search format. Once you have identified your modem accurately, you may be able to go straight to [http://www.dd-wrt.com/dd-wrtv3/dd-wrt/downloads.html DD-WRT Downloads page] (or [https://secure.dd-wrt.com/dd-wrtv3/dd-wrt/downloads.html secure version]) and find the files you need. Again, check the [[Hardware-specific]] page for links to detailed instructions that may indicate how many files you need, etc (- [[User:Clock|clock]]).+* As the peacock thread mentions, using the incorrect file is one of the worst things you can do. Fortunately, dd-wrt has simplified this immensely with their search format. Once you have identified your router accurately, you may be able to go straight to [https://secure.dd-wrt.com/dd-wrtv3/dd-wrt/downloads.html DD-WRT Downloads page] and find the files you need. Again, check the [[Hardware-specific]] page for links to detailed instructions that may indicate how many files you need, etc (- [[User:Clock|clock]]).
* Some '''newer routers''' are not supported by the latest stable release. Check the [[Supported Devices]] list for the minimum required DD-WRT version for your device. You may need to use an SVN or experimental build. * Some '''newer routers''' are not supported by the latest stable release. Check the [[Supported Devices]] list for the minimum required DD-WRT version for your device. You may need to use an SVN or experimental build.
** For a '''comparison of the builds''', see [[What is DD-WRT?#File Versions|File Versions]]. ** For a '''comparison of the builds''', see [[What is DD-WRT?#File Versions|File Versions]].
-** '''Updating through the Web GUI''' (ie, the modem's online interface) means you need to use the ''_generic'' version.+** '''Updating through the Web GUI''' (ie, the routers's online interface) means you need to use the ''_generic'' version.
-** Use the ''_mini'' version when upgrading from '''original Linksys firmware'''. You need the ''_micro'' version if your hardware has 2 MB of flash (WRT54G v5 through v8 for instance). Use the "_mini" firmware if your hardware has 4 MB or more of flash (WRT54GL for instance). (Again, use the download page's search function for help here - [[User:Clock|clock]]).+** Use the ''_mini'' version when upgrading from '''original Linksys firmware'''. You need the ''_micro'' version if your hardware has 2 MB of flash (WRT54G v5 through v8 for instance). Use the "_mini" firmware if your hardware has 4 MB or more of flash (WRT54GL for instance). The maximum filesizes in Bytes are listed [https://secure.dd-wrt.com/phpBB2/viewtopic.php?t=51486 here under '''Maximum firmware size''']. (Again, use the download page's search function for help here - [[User:Clock|clock]]).
-* Read the [http://svn.dd-wrt.com:8000/dd-wrt/timeline changelog] and all other information files on the download pages. They contain important information!+* Read the [[Changelog]], the [http://svn.dd-wrt.com/timeline timeline] and all other information files on the download pages. They contain important information!
-==Downloading Your DD-WRT Firware==+==Downloading Your DD-WRT Firmware==
-* You will need to save a number of files (firmware, instruction pages for offline work, etc). '''Starting a folder for this project''' before downloading anything is advisable - [[User:Clock|clock]].+See: [[Firmware_FAQ#Where_do_I_download_firmware.3F|Where do I download firmware]]
-* Ensure you are using the '''correct version''' of the firmware (again, the search function on the download page above should be accurate if took appropriate action to correctly identify your modem; only download firmware from that page - [[User:Clock|clock]]. +
-* Download the '''latest stable release''' from the [http://www.dd-wrt.com/dd-wrtv3/dd-wrt/downloads.html DD-WRT Downloads page] (or [https://secure.dd-wrt.com/dd-wrtv3/dd-wrt/downloads.html secure version]). +
-* Depending on your specific needs, '''you may need more than one download''' - such as a "killer" version, which must be installed prior to the dd-wrt firmware. The search function should bring up both. If instructions are provided for your modem in the [[Hardware-specific]] section, check that to see what is needed. Again, the peacock thread will give you important information on why choosing the wrong size can completely break your modem - [[User:Clock|clock]]).+
-* If you downloaded a '''.zip file''', then extract the archive. (If it is a .bin file, leave it alone - [[User:Clock|clock]]).+
-* Confirm a good download by comparing the MD5 hash fingerprint of the firmware you downloaded with the '''published checksums'''. See [[Hashes & Checksums]] for further info and instructions.+
 +=Precautions=
 +If still running OEM firmware version on an old router (usually with 2MB flash), a "kill" firmware program file may be required first. The process of installing that firmware is probably covered in the [[Hardware-specific]] page under your device. It will be similar to simply repeating the overall installation process below, but using the specific "kill" file.
 +Follow all the instructions precisely, or you may run into trouble. '''Incorrectly flashing can [[Glossary#Brick|brick]] your router!'''
-="Flashing" Your Modem with dd-wrt Firmware=+=='''Do Prior Research'''==
-The most important aspect of this section to absorb is the '''precautions'''. People kill modems constantly by not following these advisories. Please take the time to learn and absorb them - [[User:Clock|clock]].+Read the [[Firmware_FAQ|Firmware FAQ]].
-Below, three methods of flashing will be covered: using your modem's online interface ([[#Method 1: Flashing with Web GUI]]); [[#Method 2: Flashing with TFTP]]; and [[#Method 3: Flashing with Command Line]]. Your modem may dictate what you use. After reading this page, please see the [[Hardware-specific]] instructions to clarify what is best for your modem - [[User:Clock|clock]].+#Failing to prepare and do your background research can cause considerable frustration, wasted time, and render your router useless (bricked). In other words, you may have to literally throw it away and/or spend a lot of time recovering it. With some research, you'll save hours of time and frustration.
 +#It is recommended that you first read your specific device wiki, if available. For Broadcom devices read the [http://www.dd-wrt.com/phpBB2/viewtopic.php?t=51486] Peacock announcement] as a pre-ARM reference.
 +#Be careful about implementation (actually flashing) on this wiki as compared to what is recommended as a guide for your router under [[Hardware-specific]]. However, reviewing this wiki will be important for overall understanding.
-If you do not already have a dd-wrt firmware version on your modem, you may have to run a "kill" firmware program on your modem first. You should be able to find this using the search function (dd-wrt download page [[http://www.dd-wrt.com/site/support/router-database]]) for your specific device. The process of installing that firmware is probably covered in the [[Hardware-specific]] section under your device. It will be similar to simply repeating the processes outlined below for that specific "kill" file - [[User:Clock|clock]].+=='''General'''==
-.+#Do not skip resets before or after firmware updates unless you know what you're doing.
-==Precautions==+#Do NOT flash your firmware over an SSL (HTTPS) connection. Make sure you are using HTTP.
-Follow all the instructions precisely, or you may run into trouble. '''Incorrectly flashing can [[Glossary#Brick|brick]] your router!'''+=='''Prepare to Go Offline'''==
-* For the initial flash from the Linksys firmware, do not use Firefox, use IE to flash the router (even OS X IE works). Once DD-WRT is running, you can use any browser you like to administer or even flash the router.+#You will not have internet access through the router during the process of replacing the firmware. You are going to do almost everything offline with a LAN connection to your router (how to [[Settings#Disable Wireless|Disable your wireless]]). Given the many types of problems you can encounter that can prohibit you from getting help, the process of reactivating and deactivating your [[Security|security settings]] if you actually can get back online, and the likelihood for browser crashes if you try to just keep the pages up, '''you will need to download everything you need before you start'''. This will allow you to review the information offline in the event that something goes wrong.
-* Do NOT use a wireless connection to upload firmware. Use a wired connection. It is recommended that you disable any wireless adapters on your system to ensure that none are used for the transfer.+#Windows Vista users may need to [[Settings#Disable Compound TCP|Disable Compound TCP]].
-* Do NOT flash your firmware over an SSL (HTTPS) connection. Make sure you are using HTTP.+#Note or screenshot the current settings for future reference, especially if you have static IP addresses.
-* Disable your anti-virus-software, as a false-positive virus detection could interrupt the upload.+## It can be essential to record your current WAN MAC address. Some ISPs do not allow an immediate change of the routing hardware without a phone call. Check the GUI and router label for the WAN MAC.
-* If you need to use '''TFTP''' to upload firmware, disable your software firewall first.+# Have a secondary router or internet connection available while experimenting with your router's firmware, to expedite any trouble shooting and remove the risk of becoming stranded.
-* You will not have internet access through the router during the process of replacing the firmware. We recommend you save this webpage and the [[Recover from a Bad Flash]] and [[Index:FAQ|FAQ]] pages to your hard drive (use File->Save As, '''*NOT* a bookmark'''). This will allow you to review the information offline in the event that something goes wrong.+## If you have a cable modem which connects to your router with ethernet, you can plug your PC straight into the modem should you have any problems. Your PC will be assigned your external IP with DHCP, and you will be on the net. Remember to use a software firewall.
-* Do not forget to make note of your current settings, especially if you have static IP addresses. A quick way of doing this is to take screenshots of your current configuration screens. +#Recommended: PDF or save the following for offline reference e.g. ''File''->''Save As'' to html ('''NOT a bookmark''')
-** It can be essential to record your current WAN MAC address. Some ISPs do not allow an immediate change of the routing hardware and changing the firmware changes the MAC address.+#*The installation page for your specific router as found though the [[Hardware-specific]] page.
-* Have a secondary router or internet connection available while experimenting with your router's firmware, to expedite any trouble shooting and remove the risk of becoming stranded. +#*The [http://www.dd-wrt.com/phpBB2/viewtopic.php?t=51486] Peacock announcement.
-** If you have a cable modem which connects to your router with ethernet, you can plug your PC straight into the modem should you have any problems. Your PC will be assigned your external IP with DHCP, and you will be on the net. Remember to use a software firewall.+#*This [[Installation]] wiki.
 +#*[[Recover_from_a_Bad_Flash|Recover from a Bad Flash]].
 +#*FAQs [http://www.dd-wrt.com/wiki/index.php/Index:FAQ]
 +#*Tftp Flash instruction [http://www.dd-wrt.com/wiki/index.php/Tftp_flash] if applicable. It describes how you may have to enable Tftp, which is very quick and easy (just one check box). You may need to be prepared to use Tftp even if you do not plan to use it.
 +#*The Wikipedia instructions for [[Settings# Disable Compound TCP|Compound TCP]], if applicable (Vista, etc), available at: [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compound_TCP].
 +#In addition, you will probably also need:
 +#*The Tftp.exe file, if applicable (execute it from the Tftp [http://www.dd-wrt.com/wiki/index.php/Tftp_flash] link above, and just leave it open).
 +#*First ("killer") flash file, if applicable.
 +#*Second (DD-WRT) flash file. (In some cases, this may be the only file you need.)
-==Method 1: Flashing with Web GUI ==+=='''Going Offline/Before Implementation'''==
 +#Do NOT use a wireless connection to GUI upload firmware. Use a wired (LAN) connection.
 +#Disable any wireless adapters (see the [[Settings#Disable Wireless|right way to do it]]) on your system to ensure that none are used for the transfer.
 +#Recommended: AFTER you are offline, disable your anti-virus software, as as a false positive detection could interrupt the upload. Disable all firewalls and security (see [[Security|Disable Security]]. Restore security measures before going back online.
-The following instructions are very general and apply mostly to Linksys routers. Check for hardware-specific instructions in the [[Hardware-specific]] section.+=Flashing Your Router with DD-WRT Firmware=
 +Three methods of flashing are covered below: using the router's online interface (Method 1), via TFTP ([[#Method 2: Flashing with TFTP|Method 2]]), and with the Command Line Interface ([[#Method 3: Flashing with Command Line|Method 3]] - '''use this if wirelessly connected'''). The router model and/or location may dictate what you use.
-#'''Reset your modem'''+==Method 1: Flashing with Web GUI ==
-## '''Use [[Hard reset or 30/30/30]].'''+These instructions are very generic. Search the wiki, [[Supported Devices]], and [https://download1.dd-wrt.com/dd-wrtv2/downloads/betas DD-WRT download page] for your specific device.
-##While not as preferable (this may cause problems down the line) you can reset to [[Factory Defaults]] instead. + 
-###If you do decide to restore defaults, if you do not know the IP address, username, or password of your router, you will need to use the reset button (this does not appear to be referring to a [[Hard reset or 30/30/30]]; this appears to be referring to a simple 30-second reset - [[User:Clock|clock]]). Be careful when using this method! Apparently if you have OpenWRT already on your router the reset button may not function as it is assumed here and may actually brick your router! Research the functionality of your current firmware to be safe.)+#'''Reset your router'''
-###Again, if you decide to restore defaults, if you already have a version of dd-wrt installed, and you know the IP address, username, or password of your router, you can use this method (other modems may require different instructions):+##This is probably not needed, but if the memory or nvram is almost full, a firmware update can brick it. Thus it is recommended at least until are familiar with the particular device.
-###* Follow the instructions in the next section to log in to the Web GUI.+##See [[Reset And Reboot]] and note the default IP address. If not listed on the router label see [wikidevi.com Wikidevi]
-###* Click the "Administration" tab.+##Perform a GUI reset (''Administration''->''[[Factory Defaults]]'' in DD-WRT) or use an alternate method:
-###* Click the "Factory Defaults" sub-tab.+##*[[Hard reset or 30/30/30|Hard reset]]. <font color=darkred>WARNING: some devices should not use 30/30/30, including all ARM devices.</font>
-###* Select "Yes".+##*Reset button: with the router running normally, hold the reset button until the lights flash (or up to 30 sec). Be careful when using this method! Research the functionality of your current firmware to be safe.)
-###* Click the "Save Settings" button.+#'''Log in to the Web GUI'''
-###* A new page will open, click "continue".)+##Javascript is required for the Web interface. Try a different browser if having issues.
-#'''Log on to the Web GUI (if you have not done so already).''' +##Access the GUI via the router IP address. The default for DD-WRT and many devices is [192.168.1.1], or see [wikidevi.com Wikidevi]. If the IP address is unknown, see [[Obtaining Router IP]]. If still having issues, [[Hard_reset_or_30/30/30#Erasing_NVRAM|erase the nvram]].
-##To use the Web interface, you will need to have Javascript enabled with any security restrictions disabled. Some versions of the Linksys firmware Web GUI have trouble with different browsers (some don't work with Firefox, some don't work with Safari). If the Web GUI is giving errors, try switching to a different browser.+## You will be prompted for username and password. (If your router already has a DD-WRT versions starting with 2006-Feb-28, the default username is ''root''. Prior versions have a blank username by default. For Linksys firmware, the default username can be left blank or set to anything. For both DD-WRT and Linksys firmware, the default password is ''admin''. Search online for other defaults on other routers).
-## Type in the IP address of the router (typically, the default is 192.168.1.1, especially with Linksys) into the address bar of your browser. (If you do not know the router IP address, you can [[Obtaining Router IP|attempt to obtain it]]).+#'''Upload the Firmware'''
-## You will be prompted for username and password. (If your modem already has a DD-WRT versions starting with 2006-Feb-28, the default username is ''root''. Prior versions have a blank username by default. For Linksys firmware, the default username can be left blank or set to anything. For both DD-WRT and Linksys firmware, the default password is ''admin''. Search online for other defaults on other modems).+##'''NOTE:''' Multiple flashes may be needed if flashing from OEM firmware. See the [[Firmware_FAQ#Where_do_I_download_firmware.3F|FAQ download file details]].
-#'''Upload the Firmware.''' +## '''WARNING:<span style="color:#FF0000">DO NOT interrupt the setup while the router is being flashed and rebooted. Do not turn off the computer, close the web browser, or turn off the router during this process!'''</span>
-## '''WARNING:<span style="color:#FF0000">It is VERY important that you not interrupt the setup while the router is being flashed and rebooted. Do not turn off the computer, close the web browser, or turn off the router during this process! (I usually just take a step back, and turn my head away so I don't breathe on it for these crucial 2 minutes).'''</span>+##This section is written for the DD-WRT GUI. An OEM firmware interface will be different. See [[#Precautions|Precautions]].
-##This section is written for a dd-wrt web GUI. Your modem's GUI's operations may be different. Please see the previous comment about the possible need for "kill" firmware before your dd-wrt installation. This section may not work for your modem as written. Please see the [[Hardware-specific]] section for information on your specific modem's needs.+### Click the "Administration"->"Firmware Upgrade" tab.
-### First do a [[Reset And Reboot|hard reset]] on the unit that DD-WRT is to be loaded onto.+###Optional: select the option to Reset to Defaults after flashing (NOTE: this can cause flashing issues)
-### You should be in the Web GUI of the router. Go there now (as discussed above).+###Click the "Browse" button and select the DD-WRT .bin file you downloaded and confirmed.
-### Click the "Administration" tab+###Click the "Upgrade" button and wait for a redirect page confirming successful upload.
-### Click the "Firmware Upgrade" sub-tab.+###Now '''<font color=red>wait at least 5 minutes</font>''' before clicking "Continue". This varies with the hardware.
-### (Only applicable when DD-WRT is already installed.) Choose the option to Reset to Defaults after flashing.+### If flashed successfully you will now be able to access the DD-WRT web interface at [192.168.1.1].
-### Click the "Browse" button and select the DD-WRT .bin file you downloaded and confirmed.+
-### Click the "Upgrade" button.+
-### The router will take a few minutes to upload the file and flash the firmware. During this time, the power light will flash.+
-### A new page will open confirming that the upload was successful ([[Installation#Possible errors if not]]). Now '''<font color=red>wait about 5 minutes</font>''' before clicking "Continue".+
-### Lastly, do another [[Reset And Reboot|hard reset]] on the unit.+
-### If flashed successfully you will now be able to access the DD-WRT web interface at 192.168.1.1 (again, that is default for most Linksys, etc modems; does not apply to all modems. Check your modem's IP before you start this process - [[User:Clock|clock]]).+
-#'''Possible Errors with Uploading Firmware'''+
-##''[Comment added 2007/03/27 by staylor]'' '''Or, you won't be at the DD-WRT web interface''' I have a WRT54g v1.1 (also with WRT54gl v1.1), flashing with DD-WRT v23 sp2. I waited the requisite number of minutes, and my "Wireless-G" badge lit up (a good sign), but when I clicked "Continue" after the upload was successful, I did '''<font color=red>not</font>''' get to the DD-WRT web interface. Nor was the device ping-able.+
-##''[Comment added 1/04/08 by jwebste1]'' I can confirm Staylor's comment above for a brand new store bought WRT350N (had to soft reset the router to get the mini install to become accessible on 192.168.1.1. '''Holding down the reset button for 30 seconds''' (leaving the power cable connected) re-booted the router, and all was fine thereafter. If the above doesn't result in a successful load of the DD-WRT web interface, try a "ipconfig -renew" in a command prompt window.+
-##''[Comment added 12/22/09 by clock]'' After initially attempting the install of the "kill" file for my modem (as described in my modem's [[Hardware-specific]] section) my browser kept providing an error message. Finally, I thought the router had been bricked. A quick look at the peacock thread showed that '''pinging the modem and receiving a TTL of 100 meant that, which the modem appeared broken, it was ready for the installation of the dd-wrt .bin file for my modem'''. Using the tftp.exe discussed at the peacock and at [[http://www.dd-wrt.com/wiki/index.php/Tftp_flash#TFTP_tools]], I was able to install the dd-wrt firmware without much more fuss.+
-##Again, the best method is to look first at your [[Hardware-specific]] guidelines and refer to those instructions, keeping in mind the [[Precautions]] outlined above.+
-##During the firmware upload process, if your router says something similar to, "Upload Failed," you may be using the wrong version of DD-WRT. This may occur through the web GUI if you use a *wrt54g.bin version when you should have selected the generic version instead. It may also be that your router requires the mini version to be flashed ''before'' the full version. Be sure to double check to make sure you have the right version (as described in the first section of this page - [[User:Clock|clock]]). If you are certain that your router is supported and that you have the correct firmware, you may simply need to use a different web browser (e.g. from Firefox to Internet Explorer).+
-##After clicking Upgrade when upgrading firmware from one DD-WRT version to another, if you are using Firefox there may be a problem with the upload. In this instance the screen fades to white with a countdown timer and is followed by a Connection Reset message shortly after. After this you cannot access the Web GUI again, and a router reboot will result in a flashing power light (WRT54GL is the case in point). You can [[Recover from a Bad Flash|recover from this]] and use a different browser (e.g. Internet Explorer) to upload the firmware.+
-##If logging in fails with the default username/password, you can reset the password with a [[Reset And Reboot]].+
#'''Reset Again''' #'''Reset Again'''
-##You can use [[Hard reset or 30/30/30]] again. Do this '''only''' after you have confirmed that the firmware upgrade is working. At this point you ''may'' have temporary problems using [[Web Interface]], so just [[ping]] your router. +##Do this '''only''' after you have confirmed that the firmware upgrade is working.
-##Many Web Interface problems can be solved by a hard reset and by clearing your browser cache.+##'''This is required if flashing from OEM firmware!''' See the above section again.
-##See [[Reset And Reboot]].+##For DD-WRT upgrades, this should only be needed if making large build jumps, changing kernel version (e.g. 2.4 to 2.6 or 2.6 to 3.10), or if having issues. For the latter, reset, retest, and then search the forum before making a new post.
 +#'''Possible Errors with Uploading Firmware'''
 +##If the DD-WRT web interface is not accessible after 10 minutes, try clearing the browser cache, renewing the IP address ("ipconfig -renew" in a Windows command prompt window), another reset, or power cycle.
 +##Ping the router: a TTL=64 response indicates normal operation, while TTL=100 usually indicates a TFTP server awaiting firmware upload. TFTP usually only is available in the first couple seconds at power-up, and may time out if the file upload is larger than OEM versions. See [[Tftp_flash]], and note only OEM firmware may work for TFTP, possible trailed builds.
 +##Search the forum, wiki, [[Supported Devices]], and [https://download1.dd-wrt.com/dd-wrtv2/downloads/betas DD-WRT download page] for your specific device.
 +##The firmware upload process may respond with "Upload Failed" if using the wrong file type, kernel, or size of DD-WRT (or may just brick). E.g. This may occur through the web GUI if you use a *wrt54g.bin version when you should have selected the generic version. It may also be that your router requires the mini version to be flashed ''before'' the full version. Ensure you have the right version, as described in the first section.
 +##See [[Recover from a Bad Flash]] or try a different internet browser to upload the firmware.
 +##If logging in fails with the default username/password, reset again.
==Method 2: Flashing with TFTP== ==Method 2: Flashing with TFTP==
-Although TFTP is a safe method to flash many routers, it is not be seen as the standard procedure for flashing most devices, except if you are specifically told to do so in the specific instructions for flashing your brand or type of device (see [[Hardware-specific]] section). Normally, the GUI flashing method should be used, as it is adequate for the vast majority of standard situations, but refer to the [[Hardware-specific]] section to be sure.+TFTP is generally a safe method to flash many routers. However, it is not preferred method for flashing most devices. In the [[Hardware-specific]] section you may be advised to use this method if it is the preferred or only method for your brand or type of device. Normally, the GUI flashing method should be used, as it is adequate for the vast majority of standard situations, but refer to the [[Hardware-specific]] section to be sure.
-Tftp is easy: if often requires one quick box uncheck and a quick click - then you are good to go. It is great for instances when web GUI malfunctions or the modem appears to be (but is not) bricked - [[User:Clock|clock]].+Tftp is easy: if often requires one quick box uncheck and a quick click - then you are good to go. It is great for instances when web GUI malfunctions or the router appears to be (but is not) bricked.
-If you still wish to flash with TFTP, see the articles [[TFTP flash]], [[Asus TFTP Flash]] and [[Recover from a Bad Flash#Recovering with TFTP|Recovering with TFTP]]. +If you still wish to flash with TFTP, see the articles [[TFTP flash]], [[Asus TFTP Flash]] and [[Recover from a Bad Flash#Recovering with TFTP|Recovering with TFTP]].
==Method 3: Flashing with Command Line== ==Method 3: Flashing with Command Line==
 +This is only available on routers that already have DD-WRT installed and Telnet/SSH enabled. It is the *ONLY* recommended method to upgrade the router ''wirelessly'' because the file is transferred from the DD-WRT servers to the router and the checksum is verified to ensure that the file is not corrupt. Other flashing methods transfer the file from your PC to the router (which would go over the wireless which is not as reliable) and do nothing to verify that the file is not corrupted.
-This is available on routers that already have DD-WRT installed and Telnet/SSH enabled.+First [[Telnet/SSH and the Command Line|Telnet or ssh]] into DD-WRT.
-It's the *ONLY* recommended mode to upgrade the router ''wirelessly''. (It may not be useful in certain, two-part firmware upgrades that require a "kill" sequence - [[User:Clock|clock]]).+'''1a.''' Download the firmware to the router's /tmp directory with wget (http or ftp), curl (http or ftp), scp, or a mounted share.
- +
-[[Telnet/SSH and the Command Line|telnet or ssh]] into dd-wrt+
-Download the firmware to the router's /tmp directory with wget or scp+
<pre>cd /tmp <pre>cd /tmp
-wget http://www.dd-wrt.com/dd-wrtv2/downloads/stable/dd-wrt.v2x_generic.bin</pre>+wget http://download1.dd-wrt.com/dd-wrtv2/downloads/betas/{year}/{build}/{platform}/{firmware}</pre>
 +Or:
 +<pre>curl http://download1.dd-wrt.com/dd-wrtv2/downloads/betas/{year}/{build}/{platform}/{firmware} -o {firmware}</pre>
 +*The ''{platform}'' refers to architecture or router model and version. See [[#Downloading_Your_DD-WRT_Firmware]] for details.
-Alternatively, you could use the mounted share if you have one, and simply download the file there. +Note: To download from login/password protected sites (like BS' ftp for testers), use the following syntax:
 +<pre>wget ftp://{login}:{password}@{download location}/{firmware}</pre>
 +Or:
 +<pre>curl -u {login}:{password} ftp://{download location}/{firmware} -o {firmware}</pre>
-[[Hashes|compare the MD5 checksum]] of the original and the downloaded file+'''1b.''' ''Optional:'' [[Hashes|Compare the MD5 checksum]] ['''obsolete'''] of the original and the downloaded file.<br>
-<pre>md5sum dd-wrt.v2x_generic.bin</pre>+*For modern builds, one can also download the file to another directory (or device) and check the md5sum for both downloads:
 + md5sum {firmware}
-Write the firmware to flash+'''2.''' Now ''write'' the firmware to flash ('''do NOT''' use ''mtd write''):
-<pre>write dd-wrt.v2x_generic.bin linux</pre>+ write {firmware} linux &
 +*The ampersand backgrounds the ''write'' command to protect against connection loss, as the shell would otherwise abort it.
-Wait...+Note: some routers can have more than one firmware partition: e.g. ''linux'' and ''linux2''
 +*For an example on how to check and switch boot partitions, see [[Linksys_EA6900#Boot_Partitions|here]].
-Reboot+'''3.''' ''Optional:'' Reset nvram (if having issues or for large version changes) via ''erase nvram'' '''or''' ''nvram erase''
 +The latter is for builds after 18 Apr 2018 (35770 and later). See [[Hard_reset_or_30/30/30#Erasing_NVRAM|Erasing NVRAM]] for details.
-Restore factory defaults using erase nvram command or reset button+'''4.''' When completed without error, finally:
 + reboot
==Other Notes== ==Other Notes==
=== Upgrading to a Newer Version of DD-WRT === === Upgrading to a Newer Version of DD-WRT ===
-If DD-WRT is already installed on your router, you can simply upgrade to a new version via the web interface or TFTP. However, it is highly recommended that you restore the router to defaults using the reset button before ''and'' after flash. Never restore old backups from previous versions! Skipping these steps could lead to a bricked device!+If DD-WRT is already installed on your router, you can simply upgrade to a new version via the web interface or [[Tftp_flash|TFTP]]. However, it is highly recommended that you restore the router to defaults using the reset button before ''and'' after flash. Never restore old backups from previous versions! Skipping these steps could lead to a bricked device!
 + 
 +===If you can't wget the firmware===
 +On routers without OpenSSL (e.g. 4MB models), the https link won't work: use HTTP or FTP.
 + 
 +If you don't ordinarily use DNSmasq for local DNS (perhaps because you run another DNS server), then the CLI commands may not be able to resolve addresses, so wget may fail. This can be hard to troubleshoot since the busybox commands don't return errors. Possible workarounds:
 + 
 +* Enable DNSmasq just while getting the file
 +<pre>
 +nvram set dns_dnsmasq=1
 +stopservice dnsmasq
 +startservice dnsmasq
 +nvram set dns_dnsmasq=0
 +</pre>
-Please see wiki article [[Hard reset or 30/30/30|Hard reset]] for further information on how to restore your device back to DD-WRT default settings.+* Use nslookup on another host to get the IP address of ftp.dd-wrt.com, then download from <pre>ftp://<ip>/<path></pre>
 +** Note: HTTP won't work (the download1 vhost needs the "Host" header to give you the file, and the stripped-down DD-WRT wget doesn't have the --header option).
===Configuration Notes=== ===Configuration Notes===
Line 145: Line 183:
===If something goes wrong=== ===If something goes wrong===
* If your router fails to reboot (power light doesn't stop flashing, no web interface, etc) you will need to [[Recover from a Bad Flash]]. Additional help can be found by doing a [http://www.dd-wrt.com/phpBB2/search.php forum search]. * If your router fails to reboot (power light doesn't stop flashing, no web interface, etc) you will need to [[Recover from a Bad Flash]]. Additional help can be found by doing a [http://www.dd-wrt.com/phpBB2/search.php forum search].
-*The peacock thread's section on bricked modems ([http://www.dd-wrt.com/phpBB2/viewtopic.php?t=51486]) can help you to identify if you have a real problem or not.+*The peacock thread's section on bricked routers ([http://www.dd-wrt.com/phpBB2/viewtopic.php?t=51486]) can help you to identify if you have a real problem or not.
-The [[Hardware-specific]] section has been moved. 
-[[Category:English documentation]]+[[Category:Documentation| ]]
 +[[Category:Flashing networking hardware| ]]
 +[[Category:Categories| ]]

Current revision

Installing DD-WRT on a router in most cases is almost as simple as installing a program onto your computer. However, doing it incorrectly can leave you with a router that you have to throw away. Installing programs on a router, known as firmware, are achieved by a method called flashing. This article helps you determine which installation process is for you on your supported router, as well as giving router suggestions and information about flashing each one.


Contents

[edit] Choosing the Correct Firmware - Extremely Important

[edit] Is Your Router Supported?

Please check the router database first: http://www.dd-wrt.com/site/support/router-database.

If your router is not listed there, check the wiki page.

For a list of devices working with DD-WRT, please see wiki page Supported Devices.

For a list of devices not working with DD-WRT please see wiki page Known incompatible devices.

If your device is supported, you may find specific information in the Hardware-specific page for your router. However, to avoid Bricking your router, please finish reading this entire page first. You will then want to follow what is written for your particular device.

[edit] Which router should I buy?

For a list of recommended devices for installing h DD-WRT, please see Which router should I buy?

[edit] Before You Download, Upgrade, or Flash

Before you try to take any actions, including loading any firmware to your router....read the English Broadcom Forum Announcement entitled Peacock Thread It contains more information than just for those who are having problems. BROADCOM ONLY INFO MOSTLY. Unfortunately, skipping this step leads many to brick (break) their routers.

Start there... do some research... then ask questions. Don't just load V24-Final or SP1. (Read the English Broadcom Forum Announcements referenced above to find out why). The user-friendly dd-wrt download page will help you identify the correct "killer" and dd-wrt firmware versions (as applicable) for your device as needed. However, you must use the peacock thread and use the information in the Hardware-specific page to accurately identify your hardware and not create a problem that renders your router useless.

After you have read THIS page, and gotten some background on the peacock page, the Hardware-specific page may be the most useful page for you in terms of identifying your router, figuring out what files you need to download (including instructions), and figuring out the correct installation procedures.

[edit] Identifying Your DD-WRT Firmware

  • Use the brand-specific information in the Hardware-specific page to accurately identify which model you have. Start with the main brand heading (ie, "Linksys"). Use that information - instead of just going by what model you think you have - clock.
  • As the peacock thread mentions, using the incorrect file is one of the worst things you can do. Fortunately, dd-wrt has simplified this immensely with their search format. Once you have identified your router accurately, you may be able to go straight to DD-WRT Downloads page and find the files you need. Again, check the Hardware-specific page for links to detailed instructions that may indicate how many files you need, etc (- clock).
  • Some newer routers are not supported by the latest stable release. Check the Supported Devices list for the minimum required DD-WRT version for your device. You may need to use an SVN or experimental build.
    • For a comparison of the builds, see File Versions.
    • Updating through the Web GUI (ie, the routers's online interface) means you need to use the _generic version.
    • Use the _mini version when upgrading from original Linksys firmware. You need the _micro version if your hardware has 2 MB of flash (WRT54G v5 through v8 for instance). Use the "_mini" firmware if your hardware has 4 MB or more of flash (WRT54GL for instance). The maximum filesizes in Bytes are listed here under Maximum firmware size. (Again, use the download page's search function for help here - clock).
  • Read the Changelog, the timeline and all other information files on the download pages. They contain important information!

[edit] Downloading Your DD-WRT Firmware

See: Where do I download firmware

[edit] Precautions

If still running OEM firmware version on an old router (usually with 2MB flash), a "kill" firmware program file may be required first. The process of installing that firmware is probably covered in the Hardware-specific page under your device. It will be similar to simply repeating the overall installation process below, but using the specific "kill" file.

Follow all the instructions precisely, or you may run into trouble. Incorrectly flashing can brick your router!

[edit] Do Prior Research

Read the Firmware FAQ.

  1. Failing to prepare and do your background research can cause considerable frustration, wasted time, and render your router useless (bricked). In other words, you may have to literally throw it away and/or spend a lot of time recovering it. With some research, you'll save hours of time and frustration.
  2. It is recommended that you first read your specific device wiki, if available. For Broadcom devices read the [1] Peacock announcement] as a pre-ARM reference.
  3. Be careful about implementation (actually flashing) on this wiki as compared to what is recommended as a guide for your router under Hardware-specific. However, reviewing this wiki will be important for overall understanding.

[edit] General

  1. Do not skip resets before or after firmware updates unless you know what you're doing.
  2. Do NOT flash your firmware over an SSL (HTTPS) connection. Make sure you are using HTTP.

[edit] Prepare to Go Offline

  1. You will not have internet access through the router during the process of replacing the firmware. You are going to do almost everything offline with a LAN connection to your router (how to Disable your wireless). Given the many types of problems you can encounter that can prohibit you from getting help, the process of reactivating and deactivating your security settings if you actually can get back online, and the likelihood for browser crashes if you try to just keep the pages up, you will need to download everything you need before you start. This will allow you to review the information offline in the event that something goes wrong.
  2. Windows Vista users may need to Disable Compound TCP.
  3. Note or screenshot the current settings for future reference, especially if you have static IP addresses.
    1. It can be essential to record your current WAN MAC address. Some ISPs do not allow an immediate change of the routing hardware without a phone call. Check the GUI and router label for the WAN MAC.
  4. Have a secondary router or internet connection available while experimenting with your router's firmware, to expedite any trouble shooting and remove the risk of becoming stranded.
    1. If you have a cable modem which connects to your router with ethernet, you can plug your PC straight into the modem should you have any problems. Your PC will be assigned your external IP with DHCP, and you will be on the net. Remember to use a software firewall.
  5. Recommended: PDF or save the following for offline reference e.g. File->Save As to html (NOT a bookmark)
    • The installation page for your specific router as found though the Hardware-specific page.
    • The [2] Peacock announcement.
    • This Installation wiki.
    • Recover from a Bad Flash.
    • FAQs [3]
    • Tftp Flash instruction [4] if applicable. It describes how you may have to enable Tftp, which is very quick and easy (just one check box). You may need to be prepared to use Tftp even if you do not plan to use it.
    • The Wikipedia instructions for Compound TCP, if applicable (Vista, etc), available at: [5].
  6. In addition, you will probably also need:
    • The Tftp.exe file, if applicable (execute it from the Tftp [6] link above, and just leave it open).
    • First ("killer") flash file, if applicable.
    • Second (DD-WRT) flash file. (In some cases, this may be the only file you need.)

[edit] Going Offline/Before Implementation

  1. Do NOT use a wireless connection to GUI upload firmware. Use a wired (LAN) connection.
  2. Disable any wireless adapters (see the right way to do it) on your system to ensure that none are used for the transfer.
  3. Recommended: AFTER you are offline, disable your anti-virus software, as as a false positive detection could interrupt the upload. Disable all firewalls and security (see Disable Security. Restore security measures before going back online.

[edit] Flashing Your Router with DD-WRT Firmware

Three methods of flashing are covered below: using the router's online interface (Method 1), via TFTP (Method 2), and with the Command Line Interface (Method 3 - use this if wirelessly connected). The router model and/or location may dictate what you use.

[edit] Method 1: Flashing with Web GUI

These instructions are very generic. Search the wiki, Supported Devices, and DD-WRT download page for your specific device.

  1. Reset your router
    1. This is probably not needed, but if the memory or nvram is almost full, a firmware update can brick it. Thus it is recommended at least until are familiar with the particular device.
    2. See Reset And Reboot and note the default IP address. If not listed on the router label see [wikidevi.com Wikidevi]
    3. Perform a GUI reset (Administration->Factory Defaults in DD-WRT) or use an alternate method:
      • Hard reset. WARNING: some devices should not use 30/30/30, including all ARM devices.
      • Reset button: with the router running normally, hold the reset button until the lights flash (or up to 30 sec). Be careful when using this method! Research the functionality of your current firmware to be safe.)
  2. Log in to the Web GUI
    1. Javascript is required for the Web interface. Try a different browser if having issues.
    2. Access the GUI via the router IP address. The default for DD-WRT and many devices is [192.168.1.1], or see [wikidevi.com Wikidevi]. If the IP address is unknown, see Obtaining Router IP. If still having issues, erase the nvram.
    3. You will be prompted for username and password. (If your router already has a DD-WRT versions starting with 2006-Feb-28, the default username is root. Prior versions have a blank username by default. For Linksys firmware, the default username can be left blank or set to anything. For both DD-WRT and Linksys firmware, the default password is admin. Search online for other defaults on other routers).
  3. Upload the Firmware
    1. NOTE: Multiple flashes may be needed if flashing from OEM firmware. See the FAQ download file details.
    2. WARNING:DO NOT interrupt the setup while the router is being flashed and rebooted. Do not turn off the computer, close the web browser, or turn off the router during this process!
    3. This section is written for the DD-WRT GUI. An OEM firmware interface will be different. See Precautions.
      1. Click the "Administration"->"Firmware Upgrade" tab.
      2. Optional: select the option to Reset to Defaults after flashing (NOTE: this can cause flashing issues)
      3. Click the "Browse" button and select the DD-WRT .bin file you downloaded and confirmed.
      4. Click the "Upgrade" button and wait for a redirect page confirming successful upload.
      5. Now wait at least 5 minutes before clicking "Continue". This varies with the hardware.
      6. If flashed successfully you will now be able to access the DD-WRT web interface at [192.168.1.1].
  4. Reset Again
    1. Do this only after you have confirmed that the firmware upgrade is working.
    2. This is required if flashing from OEM firmware! See the above section again.
    3. For DD-WRT upgrades, this should only be needed if making large build jumps, changing kernel version (e.g. 2.4 to 2.6 or 2.6 to 3.10), or if having issues. For the latter, reset, retest, and then search the forum before making a new post.
  5. Possible Errors with Uploading Firmware
    1. If the DD-WRT web interface is not accessible after 10 minutes, try clearing the browser cache, renewing the IP address ("ipconfig -renew" in a Windows command prompt window), another reset, or power cycle.
    2. Ping the router: a TTL=64 response indicates normal operation, while TTL=100 usually indicates a TFTP server awaiting firmware upload. TFTP usually only is available in the first couple seconds at power-up, and may time out if the file upload is larger than OEM versions. See Tftp_flash, and note only OEM firmware may work for TFTP, possible trailed builds.
    3. Search the forum, wiki, Supported Devices, and DD-WRT download page for your specific device.
    4. The firmware upload process may respond with "Upload Failed" if using the wrong file type, kernel, or size of DD-WRT (or may just brick). E.g. This may occur through the web GUI if you use a *wrt54g.bin version when you should have selected the generic version. It may also be that your router requires the mini version to be flashed before the full version. Ensure you have the right version, as described in the first section.
    5. See Recover from a Bad Flash or try a different internet browser to upload the firmware.
    6. If logging in fails with the default username/password, reset again.

[edit] Method 2: Flashing with TFTP

TFTP is generally a safe method to flash many routers. However, it is not preferred method for flashing most devices. In the Hardware-specific section you may be advised to use this method if it is the preferred or only method for your brand or type of device. Normally, the GUI flashing method should be used, as it is adequate for the vast majority of standard situations, but refer to the Hardware-specific section to be sure.

Tftp is easy: if often requires one quick box uncheck and a quick click - then you are good to go. It is great for instances when web GUI malfunctions or the router appears to be (but is not) bricked.

If you still wish to flash with TFTP, see the articles TFTP flash, Asus TFTP Flash and Recovering with TFTP.

[edit] Method 3: Flashing with Command Line

This is only available on routers that already have DD-WRT installed and Telnet/SSH enabled. It is the *ONLY* recommended method to upgrade the router wirelessly because the file is transferred from the DD-WRT servers to the router and the checksum is verified to ensure that the file is not corrupt. Other flashing methods transfer the file from your PC to the router (which would go over the wireless which is not as reliable) and do nothing to verify that the file is not corrupted.

First Telnet or ssh into DD-WRT.

1a. Download the firmware to the router's /tmp directory with wget (http or ftp), curl (http or ftp), scp, or a mounted share.

cd /tmp
wget http://download1.dd-wrt.com/dd-wrtv2/downloads/betas/{year}/{build}/{platform}/{firmware}

Or:

curl http://download1.dd-wrt.com/dd-wrtv2/downloads/betas/{year}/{build}/{platform}/{firmware} -o {firmware}

Note: To download from login/password protected sites (like BS' ftp for testers), use the following syntax:

wget ftp://{login}:{password}@{download location}/{firmware}

Or:

curl -u {login}:{password} ftp://{download location}/{firmware} -o {firmware}

1b. Optional: Compare the MD5 checksum [obsolete] of the original and the downloaded file.

  • For modern builds, one can also download the file to another directory (or device) and check the md5sum for both downloads:
md5sum {firmware}

2. Now write the firmware to flash (do NOT use mtd write):

write {firmware} linux &
  • The ampersand backgrounds the write command to protect against connection loss, as the shell would otherwise abort it.

Note: some routers can have more than one firmware partition: e.g. linux and linux2

  • For an example on how to check and switch boot partitions, see here.

3. Optional: Reset nvram (if having issues or for large version changes) via erase nvram or nvram erase The latter is for builds after 18 Apr 2018 (35770 and later). See Erasing NVRAM for details.

4. When completed without error, finally:

reboot

[edit] Other Notes

[edit] Upgrading to a Newer Version of DD-WRT

If DD-WRT is already installed on your router, you can simply upgrade to a new version via the web interface or TFTP. However, it is highly recommended that you restore the router to defaults using the reset button before and after flash. Never restore old backups from previous versions! Skipping these steps could lead to a bricked device!

[edit] If you can't wget the firmware

On routers without OpenSSL (e.g. 4MB models), the https link won't work: use HTTP or FTP.

If you don't ordinarily use DNSmasq for local DNS (perhaps because you run another DNS server), then the CLI commands may not be able to resolve addresses, so wget may fail. This can be hard to troubleshoot since the busybox commands don't return errors. Possible workarounds:

  • Enable DNSmasq just while getting the file
nvram set dns_dnsmasq=1
stopservice dnsmasq
startservice dnsmasq
nvram set dns_dnsmasq=0
  • Use nslookup on another host to get the IP address of ftp.dd-wrt.com, then download from
    ftp://<ip>/<path>
    • Note: HTTP won't work (the download1 vhost needs the "Host" header to give you the file, and the stripped-down DD-WRT wget doesn't have the --header option).

[edit] Configuration Notes

  • You must start to configure router from scratch. Do not try to use config files from older firmware versions.
  • It is strongly advised that you do not disable the "Boot Wait" option under the "Administration" tab. Boot Wait allows you recover if you flash your router improperly.

[edit] If something goes wrong

  • If your router fails to reboot (power light doesn't stop flashing, no web interface, etc) you will need to Recover from a Bad Flash. Additional help can be found by doing a forum search.
  • The peacock thread's section on bricked routers ([7]) can help you to identify if you have a real problem or not.