Network address translation

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NAPT (network address and port translation) is necessary due to limited public internet addresses (IPv4), to apply firewall (iptables) rules, and for other reasons.

NAPT is commonly referred to as NAT (Network address translation).

The NAPT is normally done by a router or firewall with NAPT functionalty - e.g. DD-WRT software!

Note: Private IP addresses must be (source) translated (NATed, tcp, udp: PAT) to a public (non-private) IP address (tcp: socket) before its payload can be sent into the (public) internet.

An in-depth article on Linux NAT in router firmware is here: [[1]]